Monday, December 26, 2011

Merry Christmas

Merry Christmas to you and yours.

Hopefully you have a better one than it looks like these poor fellows were having...

(From the U.S National Library of Medicine) This image shows men in a medical ward during WWII at christmas time.

Thursday, December 22, 2011

Semmelweis and the great Handwashing mystery

In Vienna in the early 1800s two wards of the General Hospital delivered babies. In Ward One the babies were delivered by medical students and in Ward Two by midwives. Both wards were free and provided care to the poorer women of Vienna, yet strangely Ward One had a very poor reputation outside the hospital.

This had nothing to do with the care the women received from their medical professional. The techniques of delivery were the same whether performed by medical students or midwives. Yet in Ward Two the death rate from ‘childbed fever’ was 4-5%. In Ward One it was double that at 9- 10%.

Childbed fever was a horrid illness that is virtually unheard of today. Aftrr birthing her baby a young woman would develop an high fever, abdominal pain and virulent red streaks across her belly (erysipelas). Eventually this overwhelming infection would result in unconsciousness and death.

At the time, no one was overly interested or concerned about this disparity. The difference between the care these patients received was only in who provided the care. What seems so obvious to us now was simply not seen by the practitioners of the day. Childbed fever was known to occur in clusters. Even though this kind of ongoing affliction could not have a random basis, it was accepted because there was no better explanation. Keep in mind that this was all some fifteen years before Louis Pasteur came up with the concept of bacteria.

Up until a young physician named Semmelweis came along.

Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (1818-1865) was born in Buda, Hungary. He studied medicine at the Universities of Pest and Vienna. In 1846 he was appointed to the General Hospital in Vienna.

It is important for us to note that Semmelweis had been greatly affected by the death of his friend, Jakob Kolletschka some years prior. Kolletschka, a professor of forensic medicine, had cut his finger whilst performing a post-mortem examination. Gloves, of course, were not brought into widespread use until some fifty years later. Kolletschka had developed an high fever, abdominal pain and erisypelas and had quickly passed away.

To modern day doctors, this is the classic presentation of septicaemia, or blood poisoning.

Semmelweis noted that women who had their babies outside the hospital, prior to admission, rarely suffered from childbed fever. He also noted that medical students would attend deliveries straight after handling corpses in the autopsy room. He deduced that the medical students were carrying some kind of poison on their hands which was infecting the labouring women.

As a result he insisted that anyone in the hospital attending the delivery of a baby would first have to wash their hands in chlorinated water. Within a year the mortality rate from childbed fever in both Ward’s One and Two had dropped to one percent.

Despite this success, Semmelweis’s changes were deeply resented by the medical fraternity. Doctors of the time were actually proud of the ‘hospital odour’ they carried on their hands, considering it as a mark of their status. Semmelweis's protocol for handwashing was also time consuming. Similarly, they were angry at the suggestion that they could have been responsible for the women’s deaths. Semmelweis published several papers of his findings, which were ignored, and he was eventually forced out of his job in 1850.

Undettered, he began teaching midwifery at the Pest University, and continued to publish papers. In 1861 he published a book, his seminal work, entitled Die Aetiologie, der Begriff und die Prophylaxis des Kindbettfiebers (the Cause, Theory and Prevention of Childbed Fever).

Unfortunately this was a rambling and dense tome where the point about handwashing was deeply buried and not easily extractable or understandable. Unsurprisingly that most important conclusion, therefore, fell on deaf ears.

The book was probably one of the first signs of Semmelweis impending breakdown. He became increasingly irrational and psychotic and was eventually admitted to a mental hospital. Here he became violent and was beaten by attendants. As a result of the injuries he suffered, he developed blood poisoning, and passed away some two weeks later.

The cause of Semmelweis’s own breakdown is unclear. It’s somewhat romantic to think that that the ignorance and frustrations of the medical profession caused him to go insane. However, it is much more likely that he already suffered a psychotic tendency and his professional frustration was simply the trigger.

Either way, the cause of his death is deeply ironic.

As to the actions of the maternity community, Semmelweis's work was largely unknown. Fourteen years after his death, a gynaecologist went to present a paper denouncing the idea that a contagion was responsible for childbed fever. Fortunately, Louis Pasteur was present at the same conference, and the great man stood up and silenced the audience with the announcement that a bacteria, streptococcus, was the causative agent. That’s when things finally began to change.

Friday, December 9, 2011

War can no longer be confined to the Battlefield

When discussing wartime heroes it is often easy to focus on those stories that occurred at the frontlines. This is no less true of war time medicine which generally conjures up images of Weary Dunlop operating by firelight in the middle of a prisoner of war camp or the slice and dice of MASH tents of Korea.
While I’m sure I will find time to bring you those stories eventually I thought today I would start with a slightly less known one.
During World War II the British government made a concerted effort to be more organised in providing medical care to their population. While in World War I the conflict between being a doctor and soldier had led to many medical students leaving their courses to go and die on the fields of Flanders, this time around medical students were granted exemptions from drafting and rushed through truncated courses. Doctors and medical students were then drafted into the Emergency Medical Service and deployed throughout the country to deal with anticipated causalities both from the war and expected air raids. This service, coordinated through the ministry of health, became the precursor for the modern national health service.

Wednesday, November 30, 2011

Random Interlude

I stumbled upon this amazing image the other day.


Here we see a nurse at the Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital in London in 1940 fitting a baby with a gas mask during a Chemical Warfare drill. Note the bellows arrangement on the side.

Despite many lectures frightening the public about the dangers of phosgene and mustard gas, those threats never materialised during World War II.

Enough damage was done with plain old bullets, shrapnel and infection.

Friday, November 25, 2011

Queen Victoria Feels no Pain

Women giving birth in the modern era owe a great deal of gratitude to Queen Victoria, although these facts are not widely known. However, were it not for her, it is possible that stigmas surrounding pain relief in childbirth might still exist.

But before we explore this, we must first discuss some of the early history of anaesthetics.

It’s hard to imagine a world without anaesthetics. We use them liberally in almost every facet of medicine, from the simple insertion of cannulas, to keeping people unconscious on the operating table for hours at a time.

So it may surprise you to learn that while the history of surgery is almost as old as medicine, the concept of anaesthetics has only been around since the nineteenth century.

Monday, October 3, 2011

Bad Blood

In 1817 the death of Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales, George IV’s only legitimate child and George III’s only grandchild-heir sent the British monarchy into a spin. George IV’s three younger brothers suddenly realised that they would be tasked with the responsibility of preserving the lineage.

While George IV had twelve other healthy children all were illegitimate.

Alexadrina Victoria was born on the 24th May 1819, the first and only child of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. At the time of her birth she was fifth in line to the throne after her three uncles and father. Her father, aged 51 at the time of her birth, died a little over six months later. (3)

It’s possible that that his late-life decision to reproduce resulted in a genetic heritage that continues to haunt the royal houses of Europe today.